Understanding Usufructuary Mortgage: Key Features and Recent Developments

Under a usufructuary mortgage, the borrower retains title of the property but gives the lender possession and usage rights. During the mortgage time, the lender, also referred to as the mortgagee, is allowed to keep the revenue or produce produced by the property.

A particular kind of mortgage that falls under the purview of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, is known as a usufructuary mortgage in India. It let the borrower to keep ownership of the mortgaged property while giving the lender access to it and the ability to use it.

What Usufructuary Mortgage Means

In India, a usufructuary mortgage gives the lender, referred to as the mortgagee, the right to retain and use the property’s produce or revenue after the borrower, known as the mortgagor, transfers ownership of the property to them. To recoup the mortgage loan, the mortgagee may utilize the property for their personal gain, or they may lease it out, collect rent, or use it for any other profitable endeavor.

The mortgagee is able to use the benefits of the property and maintain possession of it during the mortgage period. The mortgagee is not, however, permitted to sell the property in order to recoup the amount, in contrast to other forms of mortgages. The mortgagor reclaims possession and complete ownership of the property upon full repayment of the mortgage.

In India, usufructuary mortgages are generally employed when a borrower needs money and is prepared to give the lender the property’s income or produce in exchange for security. With this kind of mortgage, the borrower keeps ownership while giving the lender a source of revenue to pay back the loan balance.

Usufructuary Mortgage Definition

The Transfer of Property Act’s Section 58(d) describes a Usufructuary Mortgage as

“The transaction is called a usufructuary mortgage and the mortgagee a usufructuary mortgagee where the mortgagor delivers possession or expressly or implicitly binds himself to deliver possession of the mortgaged property to the mortgagee and authorizes him to retain such possession until payment of the mortgage money and to receive the rents and profits accruing from the property or any part of such rents and profits and to appropriate the same, instead of interest or in payment of the mortgage money.

Crucial Components of Usufructuary Lending

The Transfer of Property Act’s Section 58(d) defines a usufructuary mortgage as follows:

Delivery of Possession: Either expressly or tacitly, the mortgagor must give the mortgagee possession of the property that is mortgaged.

Retention of Possession: Until the mortgage funds are paid in full or taken out of the earnings and rentals of the properties listed in the mortgage document, the mortgagee is in possession of the property.

No Personal Liability: The mortgagee is not personally obligated to pay back the loan balance.

No Sale or Foreclosure: The mortgagee is not permitted to sue to sell the mortgaged property or to foreclose on the mortgage.

Right of Redemption: In accordance with Section 62 of the Transfer of Property Act, the mortgagor may redeem the property by making the required payment or by paying off the debt with the rent and profits that the mortgagee receives.

No specified Time restriction: The payback period has no specified time restriction.

Registration: A usufructuary mortgage needs to be registered if the loan amount is Rs. 100 or more. If it is for less than Rs. 100, it can be fulfilled by delivery of the property or by a registered deed.

Historical Cases involving Usufructuary Mortgages

It was initially decided by the Supreme Court in the Prabhakaran v. M Azhagiri Pillai case that the mortgagor had to bring an action for redemption within 30 years of the mortgage deed’s date. The Punjab and Haryana High Court’s Full Bench later overturned this ruling, holding that a usufructuary mortgage has no statute of limitations.

In the case of Singh Ram (D) Tr. Lr v. Sheo Ram & Ors, the Supreme Court affirmed this rectification, stating that the limitation begins immediately upon the exercise of the usufructuary mortgagor’s unique power under Section 62 of the Transfer of Property Act.

Please take note that, according to the ruling in Ishwar Dass Jain v. Sohan Lal, a usufructuary mortgagee cannot contest the mortgagor’s title. It is impossible for the mortgagee to contest the mortgagor’s title because they have already acquired possession of the property as mortgagees from them.

How Home Loans Operate

Mortgages allow people and companies to purchase real estate without having to pay the full asking price upfront. Over a certain number of years, the borrower repays the loan plus interest until they are the sole owners of the property. The majority of conventional mortgages amortize fully. This implies that although the amount of the regular payments will not change, the distribution of principal and interest will vary with each payment over the loan’s term. Mortgage lengths are typically 15 or 30 years long.

Liens against property or claims on property are other names for mortgages. The lender may foreclose on the property if the borrower defaults on the mortgage.

A residential homebuyer might, for instance, pledge their home to their lender, granting the lender a claim over the asset. In the event that the buyer defaults on their loan, this guarantees the lender’s interest in the property. In the event of a foreclosure, the mortgage lender may take possession of the home, sell it, and utilize the proceeds to settle the outstanding balance.

The Procedure for Mortgages

Applying to one or more mortgage lenders is how prospective borrowers start the process. Evidence of the borrower’s ability to repay the loan will be requested by the lender. Statements from banks and investments, most recent tax returns, and documentation of current employment may be included. Usually, the lender will also perform a credit check.

The lender will offer the borrower a loan up to a specific amount and at a specific interest rate if the application is accepted. Thanks to a procedure called pre-approval, purchasers can apply for a mortgage even before they have decided which property to purchase or even while they are still looking. In a competitive real estate market, having a mortgage preapproval can help buyers stand out from the competition since it lets sellers know that they have the funds to support their offer.

A closing is the meeting where the buyer and seller, or their agents, convene after reaching an agreement on the terms of the transaction. At this point, the borrower pays the lender a down payment. The buyer will sign any final mortgage documents, and the seller will give the buyer possession of the property and the agreed-upon amount of money. At the closing, the lender may impose origination costs, which may take the form of points.

Mortgage with Adjustable Rate (ARM)

An adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) has a fixed interest rate for the first term, after which it may fluctuate on a regular basis in accordance with market rates. The mortgage may be more inexpensive in the short run if the initial interest rate is below market, but it may become less affordable in the long run if the rate increases significantly.

ARMs generally feature ceilings on the maximum amount that the interest rate can increase overall during the loan term as well as each time it adjusts.


With a usufructuary mortgage, borrowers can obtain loans while keeping ownership of their property. This is a novel type of mortgage. By doing this, the mortgagor permits the mortgagee to take control of the property and use its producing assets as long as the mortgage debt is not paid in full.

Delivering possession, allowing the mortgagee to keep possession, removing the mortgagor’s personal culpability, preventing foreclosure or sale of the mortgaged property, and granting the mortgagor the right of redemption are all necessary components of a usufructuary mortgage.

In India’s rural areas, usufructuary mortgages are especially common and a vital source of funding for the local economy. It has been made clear by previous rulings that there is no set length of time within which the mortgagor can exercise their right to redemption, despite legal disputes concerning the redemption term.


What is a mortgage that is abnormal?

A mortgage which is not a simple mortgage, a mortgage by conditional sale, an usufructuary mortgage.

What is a mortgage that is equitable?

An equitable mortgage is a legal arrangement where a borrower offers their property as security for a loan without transferring ownership to the lender.

What does “mortgage” mean to you?

A mortgage is an agreement between you and a lender that gives the lender the right to take your property.

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